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高中常见的“it”句式用法探索

[日期:2012-07-23] 来源:  作者: [字体: ]

高中常见的“it”句式用法探索

江苏省盐城市射阳县盘湾中学  周德珍

 

It” 既是高中英语教学重难点,也是近几年高考的热点语法。它的用法极其广泛,既可以作人称代词,也可以作非人称代词,表示时间、距离、气候等;既可以充当形式主语和形式宾语,也可以用于强调句结构中;它还常常用在某些动词或特殊词类之后,构成习惯用语。下面就其使用的重点及难点,主要通过句式加以总结:

1.It is+被强调部分+that

该句型是强调句型,将被强调的放在前面,其他部分置于之后,强调的主语如果是人,可以用来替换,如果把这种句型结构划掉后,应该是一个完整无缺的句子,这也是判断强调句型与其他从句的方法。

It was they that (who) cleaned the classroom yesterday. It was in the street that I met her father.

(2004 福建)  It was with great joy ___he received the news that his lost daughter had been found.    A. because   B. which   C. since   D. that       ( D )

2. It is not until +被强调的部分+ that

该句型译成汉语“直到……才”,可以说是的强调形式。It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a film star. =Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a film star. =I didnt realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.

(2004 湖北)It was ___back home after the experiment.

A. not until midnight did he go      B. until midnight that he didnt go

C. not until midnight that he went    D. until midnight when he didnt go     ( C )

3. It is clear (obvious, true, possible, certain) that.

该句型中it是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的主语从句,常译为“清楚(显然、真的、肯定)”是主语从句最常见的结构。

It is very clear that hes round and tall like a tree.

=That hes round and tall like a tree is very clear.

4. It is important (necessary, right, strange, natural) that

该句型和上一句同属一个句型。由于主句中的形容词不同,that后的从句中要用虚拟语气(should+动词原形)should 可以省去。建议记住该句型中的形容词。

It is important that we (should) learn English well.

It is necessary that he (should) remember these words.

5. It is said (reported, learned) that

该句型中的it 仍是形式主语,真正的主语是that 引导的主语从句。该结构常译为“据说(据报道,据悉……)

It is said that he has come to Beijing.

It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit.

6. It is suggested (ordered) that

该句型和上一句属一个句型。主句中的过去分词是表示请求、建议、命令等词时,that后的从句要用虚拟语气(should+动词原形)。可以省略,常译为“据建议;有命令……”

It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.

It was ordered that we (should) arrive there in two hours.

7. It is a pity (a shame) that

在该句型中,that后的从句一般用虚拟语气(should+动词原形),should可以省去,表示出乎意料,常译为“竟然”。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。

It is a pity that such a thing (should) happen in your class.

这种事竟然发生在你们班上,真是遗憾。

It is a pity that he is ill.  他生病了,真遗憾!

8. It is time (about time, high time) that

该句型中that后的从句应该用虚拟语气,值得注意的是:一般常用过去时态表示虚拟,但有时也用should+动词原形,should 不能省。常译为“是(正是)……的时候……”

It is time that children should go to bed. = It is time that children went to bed.

9.  It is/was the first/second/--- time that---

该句型应和上一个句型区别开来。该句型中不用虚拟语气,that从句中常用完成时态。如果主句中的谓语动词是一般现在时,则从句中的谓语动词用现在完成时;如果主句中的谓语动词是一般过去时,则从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时。表示“某人第…次…”。

It is the first time that I have been to Beijing.

It was the first time that I had been to Beijing.

10. It is/was/has been+一段时间+since---

该句式中,主句中以时间段做表语,从句中谓语动词通常是瞬间动词的一般过去时态;当从句中的谓语动词是延续性动词时,若该动词用一般过去时,则表示该动作的结束距离现在的时间;若该动词用完成时,则表示该动作的发生距离现在的时间。

It is(has been)five years since I left here. 我离开这儿有五年了。

It is (has been)five years since I smoked. =I smoked five years ago.我戒烟有五年了。

It is(has been) 5 years since I have smoked.=I have smoked for 5 years.我吸烟有五年了。

(2005 北京)It is almost five years ___we saw each other last time.

A. before    B. since    C. after    D. when                    (  B  )

11. It is when

该句型中的when引导的是一个时间状语从句,主句中的it指时间,表语由具体的时间充当。常译为“当……的时候,是……”

It was 5 oclock when he came here.

12. It bebefore

该句型主句中的it指时间,主句中的时态常是一般将来时或过去时两种时态,主句中的表语多是long ,not long ,three days, two weeks等表示时间段的词和短语。常译为“…之后才”,“没过……就……”

It was three days before he went to Beijing. 3天后,他去了北京。

It will be not long before he finishes his job.不久他就把他的工作做完了。

13. It happens (seems, looks, appears) that

该句型中的it 是形式主语,that 引导的是主语从句,主句中的happen, seem等词是不及物动词。

It happened (so happened) that he met his teacher in the street. (碰巧……)

It seems that he will be back in a few days. (看来……)

The Foreign Minister said, ___our hope that the two sides will work towards peace. (2004北京)

A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is                             ( D )

14. It takes sbto do sth.

该句型中的不定式是真正的主语,是形式主语,句型中的直接宾语是时间。常译为“做……要花费某人……”

It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall.

15It is no good (use) doing sth.

该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语,主句中的表语可以是 no good (not any good), no use (not any use ).

It is no good learning English without speaking English.

16. It doesnt matter whether

该句型中的引导的从句是真正的主语,该句型译为“不论(是否)……没关系……

It doesnt matter whether they are old.

17It is kind (of sb) to do sth.

该句型中的不定式短语是真正主语,如果不定式的逻辑主语是由of引出,主句中的形容词必须是能表示逻辑主语的形容词。常见的有:bad, brave, careless, clever, cruel, foolish good (好心的),honest, horrible, kind, lazy, modest, naughty, nice (有教养的),polite, rude, silly, stupid ,wise ,wrong等。这个句型可以改写为sb. is kind to do sth.

It is kind of you to stay so =You are kind to say so.

18. It is necessary (for sb) to do sth.

该句型与上一句统属一个句型。如果不定式的逻辑主语是由for 引出的,主句的形容词通常是表示重要性,紧迫性,频繁程度,难易,安全等情况的形容词。常见的形容词有:

Important,necessary,natural,easy,safe,common,,normal,hard,difficult,dangerous,unusual,grape, impossible, pleasant.等。

It is important for her to come to the party. =It is important that she (should) come to the party.

19. It looks (seems) as if

该句型中it 无意义,as if 引导一个状语从句,常译为:“看起来好像……”如果与事实不相符合,则从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。

It looks/seems as if he is ill. (真的病了)

It looks/seems as if he was ill. (事实上没有生病)

另外,it也会出现在一些特殊短语或句式中,

一、用在某些由名词转化来的动词之后,构成习惯性动词短语,it无实义.

1)某些原表示人、动物或事物名称的名词转化的动词;如:to dog it 打扮起来,摆阔气; to pig it 像猪一样生活,过困苦的生活; to king it 做帝王,称王称霸; to hotel it 投宿旅馆.

We had better chance it. 我们最好去碰碰运气。

She should not lord it like that. 她不该这样摆臭架子。

2)某些原表示人或动物身体部位的名词转化的动词;

Lets face it.面对现实吧。(或:鼓起勇气来)

There wont be any bus and we have to foot it in the rain. 不会有公共汽车了,我们只好在雨中步行。

Wed better leg it or well be late for work.我们最好着去,否则我们就要迟到了。

You should shoulder it. 你应该承担责任。

She lost all her money and had to pad it home. 她把钱丢光了,只得拖着脚步回家。

3)某些原表示交通工具的名词转化的动词。

to boat it 乘船去; to bus it 坐公共汽车; to taxi it 坐出租汽车去; to tube it 坐地铁去;

As the bridge has been damaged by the flood, we have to boat it.由于桥被洪水冲坏,我们只得乘船去。

Why not taxi it here? 为什么不坐出租车去呢?

You had better bus it, otherwise you will be late. 你最好坐公共汽车,否则会迟到的。

二、用在某些由形容词转化来的动词之后,构成习惯性动词短语,it无实义.

To cool it 放松下来,平静下来; to brave it 拼命干; to rough it 生活简单,过艰苦生活

She cooled it at a table for a while. 她在桌子旁边冷静了一会儿。

The explorers had to rough it when they got into the jungle.勘探队员进入丛林后,只得过艰苦生活。

三、用于某些动词的后面,构成习惯用语。

To fight it out 决一雌雄,争辩个明白; to keep at it 别松劲,干下去; to get it 理解,明白; to have it 占上风; to get it alone 单干; to call it a day 今天就到此为止吧。

You will catch it! 你可小心点(警告用语)

You are in for it. 这下你可得干到底了。(或:这下你肯定要倒霉了)

She will have it out with Mike. 她要和迈克争个高低。

Thats more like it. 这才像话。

You ask for it. 你活该。

You cant make it to the other shore in this weather. 天气这么恶劣,你可到不了对岸。

A: Shall we meet next week? 下星期我们碰一次头好吗?

B: Yes, lets make it next Sunday. 让我们约定下星期日碰头吧。

 

 

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